An equity investment is a piece of ownership of an asset or company -- such as stocks or your equity in your home, and a nonequity investment is one that doesn't reflect ownership. Nonequity investments are typically debt instruments such as bonds or bank deposits. They are issued by companies, by government agencies and by other entities and typically have the benefit of greater stability.
Investments that aren't equities typically have the benefit of stability. When you buy one of these investments, it frequently comes with a set life, a rate of return and an eventual return of your money. If you, for instance, buy a 10-year Treasury bond for $1,000 and get a 2.3 percent rate of return, you can be sure that you'll get $23 per year, every year, until you get $1,023 in the 10th year. Equities fluctuate more, as they're related to the performance of the underlying company or asset. If a company has a good year, it won't pay higher interest on its bonds, but its stock may go up to reflect it. The same applies on the downside as well.
Shutdown threats notwithstanding, government bonds are some of the safest nonequity investments that you can buy. When you buy a government bond, you're effectively becoming a lender to the government. U.S. Treasury bonds and other instruments, which are usually available in lengths as short as a few days to as long as 30 years, are considered some of most secure ways to invest. You can also buy municipal bonds, which are government bonds issued by state or local governments or agencies that usually pay out interest on a tax-free basis. Another option is to invest in government bonds from other countries, although they expose you to the risks of that country and its currency.
Many companies also issue bonds. When a business needs to borrow money, it can go out to the investment market and attempt to source it from investors through the sale of bonds. Corporate bonds usually work the same way as Treasury bonds in that you buy them, receive interest and eventually get your money back. Corporate bonds are usually rated by third parties to let you know what the credit risk of the underlying company is. High ratings, such as AAA or AA, indicate a stable company with relatively little risk of default; lower ratings -- BB or C+ -- indicate a riskier company. Lower rated "junk" bonds typically offer higher returns to compensate the investor for the risk.
Another option is to take a stake in the nonequity side of homeownership by buying mortgage bonds. While mortgage bonds can be very complicated, the most basic type is a pass-through bond. These are blocks of mortgages that get assembled together, and a bond represents a share. Every month, the homeowners in the pool make their payments, and the loan's servicer takes those payments of principal and interest and parcels them out between the owners of the bonds. Mortgage bonds provide interest and principal payments over the life of the bond rather than just interest and one lump sum of principal at the end.
A bank deposit is another example of a nonequity investment. When you put money in the bank, you're lending that money to your bank. Your bank does what it wants with the money -- usually lending it to someone else -- and returns it to you, usually with interest. It can be a demand deposit account, such as a checking or savings account that gives you access to the money whenever you want, or a certificate of deposit, where it's locked up for a set period in return for a higher interest rate.
- LearnBonds: Bonds vs. Stocks -- Which Investment Is Better for You?
- TreasuryDirect: Treasury Securities and Programs
- Investing in Bonds: What Are Municipal Bonds?
- Investing in Bonds: What Are Corporate Bonds?
- Investing in Bonds: Understanding Credit Risk
- Fidelity: What Are Mortgage-Backed Securities?
- Consumer Financial Protection Bureau: What Is the Difference Between a Checking Account, a Demand Deposit Account, and a NOW (Negotiable Order of Withdrawal) Account?
- Investing in Bonds: Certificates of Deposit
- Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. "What Makes Treasury Bill Rates Rise and Fall? What Effect Does the Economy Have on T-Bill Rates?" Accessed April 23, 2020.
- TreasuryDirect. "Treasury Notes In Depth." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- TreasuryDirect. "Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS)." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Municipal Bonds." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Corporate Bonds." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "What Are High-Yield Corporate Bonds?" Accessed April 23, 2020.
- California State Treasurer. "Bond Concepts and Overview," Page 8. Accessed April 23, 2020.
- TreasuryDirect. "TreasuryDirect." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- U.S Securities and Exchange Commission. "Bonds." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- PIMCO. "Everything You Need to Know About Bonds." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- The Vanguard Group. "What Is a Bond? A Way to Get Income & Stability." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- Ally Bank. "Bond Mutual Funds." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Risk and Return." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- Standard & Poor's Financial Services. "S&P Global Ratings Definitions." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- Fidelity. "Bond Ratings." Accessed April 28, 2020.
- U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Investor Bulletin Interest Rate Risk—When Interest Rates Go up, Prices of Fixed-Rate Bonds Fall," Pages 1-3. Accessed April 23, 2020.
- BlackRock. "How to Invest in Bonds." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- Fidelity Investments. "What Is a Yield Curve?" Accessed April 23, 2020.
- Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. "Bonds and Interest Rates." Accessed April 23, 2020.
- Rocket Mortgage. "How Bonds Affect Mortgage Rates." Accessed April 23, 2020
Steve Lander has been a writer since 1996, with experience in the fields of financial services, real estate and technology. His work has appeared in trade publications such as the "Minnesota Real Estate Journal" and "Minnesota Multi-Housing Association Advocate." Lander holds a Bachelor of Arts in political science from Columbia University.