Factors Affecting Inflation Rate

by Kimberly Goodwin ; Updated July 27, 2017
Increases in prices across multiple sectors, including food, signals inflation.

Inflation is defined as a rise in an economy’s general price level across a variety of sectors, including housing, energy and food. Historically, the U.S. inflation rate has averaged 3 percent annually. From 1917 to 1920, in 1942, and in the late 1970s, however, it rose above 10 percent. Russia and some Latin American countries are among those with historically high inflation rates. A negative inflation rate is called deflation.

Money Supply

Central banks can control interest rates by increasing or decreasing the money supply. Increasing the amount of currency in circulation causes interest rates to fall. When the growth of the money supply outpaces the growth in the economy, however, inflation rises. Since the major currencies moved away from the gold standard in the last century, the value of a currency is a function of its supply and demand in the global market. Increasing the supply of a currency faster than the country’s economy floods the market with supply that decreases its relative value. Inflation is the result of this devaluation.

National Debt

Over the long run, continually increasing a country's national debt will lead to increasing inflation. Any strategy a country takes to combat a rising national debt can ultimately lead to higher inflation. The first strategy for decreasing the national debt is to increase tax revenue. Corporations must earn money for shareholders, so they are likely to respond to higher tax rates by raising prices on their goods and services. Higher priced goods and services result in higher inflation. The second strategy for decreasing the national debt is to increase the money supply.

Cost-Push Effect

Increasing the cost of one production component causes the price of the finished good to increase as well. When the price of coffee beans increases, the price of lattes at the local coffee shop also increase. When the price of oil increases, transportation costs for all goods rise. Those increasing transportation costs pass through to the retail price of all goods. So, increases in the cost of raw materials ultimately lead to increases in the inflation rate.

Demand-Pull Effect

In a strong, healthy economy, wage rates and household wealth increase. When people have more money in their pockets, they can spend more on goods and services. Holding supply steady while increasing the demand for goods and services results in increased prices. Strong demand without an increase in supply results in higher prices and a higher inflation rate.

About the Author

Kimberly Goodwin has a Ph.D. in finance from the University of Alabama and is an associate professor of finance and the Parham Bridges Chair of Real Estate at the University of Southern Mississippi. She publishes in top real estate journals as well as on her blog, Your Finance Professor. Goodwin is also the managing editor of the Journal of Housing Research.

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