Most annuities are designed as long-term investment vehicles. Deferred annuities defer payments until a later date, while immediate annuities typically begin making payments right away. When an annuitant – the person who owns the annuity contract – begins withdrawing money from an annuity before the contract annuitizes or before he is age 59 1/2, he will likely have to pay an early withdrawal tax penalty and income taxes on the annuity proceeds.
If a person cashes in an annuity before she turns 59 1/2 or before the contract annuitizes, then she is likely liable for income taxes on the proceeds and an early withdrawal tax penalty of 10 percent.
Finding More About Immediate and Deferred Annuities
When people purchase immediate annuities, they make one lump sum payment into the annuity and begin receiving their monthly income payments within 30 days of the deposit. When people purchase deferred annuities, they make one lump sum payment or multiple payments over time into the annuity. Once their contract annuitizes or once they reach age 59 1/2, their annuity beneficiary payout options include a guaranteed monthly income stream.
Looking For Ownership Implications
If a person owns an immediate annuity, she cannot cash it in with the annuity company. Instead, she would have to sell it on the secondary market. To do so, she would have to contact a company that purchases structured settlements. When she sells her annuity, the IRS will tax any gains she made on the investments inside the annuity at her regular federal income tax rate. If she sells her annuity before she is 59 1/2, she will also have to pay the IRS an early withdrawal penalty fee of 10 percent.
Unlike immediate annuities, a person who owns a deferred annuity may cash it in with the annuity company before reaching age 59 1/2. If he decides to do so, the IRS will tax any gains on the annuity at his regular income tax rate and he will pay a 10 percent tax penalty for cashing in his annuity before age 59 and 1/2.
Obtaining Information About Annuity Surrender Charges
One other consequence of cashing in annuity ownership is a surrender charge. Surrender charges are the fees that the annuity company charges people for surrendering, or cashing in their annuities during the surrender period. Surrender periods vary and typically last for years. Surrender charges also vary by annuity company, but are always a percentage of the value of your annuity contract.
Reporting Your Taxes
You can use Form 1099-R to report any and all distributions that you receive from your annuities throughout the year.
- U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission: Variable Annuities – What You Should Know
- IRS: Form 1099-R, Distributions From Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit-Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts, etc.
- Investopedia: Getting the Whole Story on Variable Annuities
- IRS: Annuities – A Brief Description
- IRS: Topic Number 410 – Pensions and Annuities