Consolidation refers to combining items. If you take a sock collection that is spread over three drawers and a corner of your closet, and put all of your socks in one bin, you've consolidated them. Frequently, the term is used in business and economics to refer to putting companies or debts together into a single, larger entity or loan.
Student Loan Consolidations
You can frequently consolidate your federal student loans into a single large loan and may also be able to take out a separate private consolidation loan for your private student loans. Taking out a consolidation loan lets you make a single payment. It may also reduce your payments and let you spread your loan out over time. Sometimes, a consolidation loan can lower your interest rate as well. On the other hand, if you pay your interest over a longer time, you could end up spending more in total even if you spend less every month.
Consolidating Credit Cards
If you get an offer for a low-interest-rate credit card, you might be tempted to transfer the balances from your other cards to the low-rate card. This type of consolidation can save you a lot of money if you significantly lower your rate. However, you aren't getting out of debt when you consolidate -- you're just moving the debt around to make it easier to pay off. As such, you might want to avoid running the credit cards that you paid off back up or you could end up with twice the debt you originally had.
You can also take out a consolidation loan that you can use to pay off credit cards or other debts and roll them into a single loan. Some loans are personal loans that aren't secured by anything other than your promise to pay. If you have a house with equity, which is value that isn't tied up by a loan, you can also borrow against the equity and take out a home equity loan for consolidation. Sometimes, the interest on these loans is tax deductible.
Companies can merge, or consolidate, as well. For instance, your favorite coffee shop could consolidate with your friend's favorite tea shop. That way, the company is guaranteed to profit regardless of which hot beverage you drink. If two health clubs are competing with each other on price, they could merge together into a single company with a single price that may be higher. Sometimes, companies consolidate because one wants the other's products for its line of products, as well.
- Forbes: Five Things You Need to Do With Your Student Loans Right Now
- Wells Fargo: Wells Fargo Private Consolidation Loan
- US News Money: Four Debt Consolidation Traps to Avoid
- Minority Business Development Agency: Five Types of Company Mergers
- Federal Student Aid. "Consolidating Your Federal Education Loans Can Simplify Your Payments, but It Also Can Result in the Loss of Some Benefits." Accessed April 6, 2020.
- SoFi. "Consolidate vs. Refinance." Accessed April 6, 2020.
- Benefits.gov. "Education Loan Consolidation." Accessed April 6, 2020.
- Federal Student Aid. "Get Temporary Relief." Accessed April 6, 2020.
- Federal Student Aid. "If Your Loan Servicer Receives Acceptable Documentation of Your Death, Your Federal Student Loans Will Be Discharged." Accessed April 6, 2020.
- SoFi. "What Is a Direct Consolidation Loan?" Accessed April 6, 2020.
- Federal Student Aid. "If Your Federal Student Loan Payments Are High Compared to Your Income, You May Want to Repay Your Loans Under an Income-Driven Repayment Plan." Accessed April 6, 2020.
- Federal Student Aid. "Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF)." Accessed April 6, 2020.
- SoFi. "Consolidating Student Loans with a Spouse." Accessed April 6, 2020.
- Congressman David Price. "Price Introduces Bipartisan, Bicameral Legislation to Provide Borrowers Relief from Joint Consolidation Loans." Accessed April 6, 2020.
Steve Lander has been a writer since 1996, with experience in the fields of financial services, real estate and technology. His work has appeared in trade publications such as the "Minnesota Real Estate Journal" and "Minnesota Multi-Housing Association Advocate." Lander holds a Bachelor of Arts in political science from Columbia University.