Collateral is usually some form of property or assets such as equipment, automobiles, tools or real estate that is pledged as security for a loan. Banks will use collateral to make sure they are in a more stable situation when a loan is made.
If a bank wants to make a larger loan to a consumer or a business, it may require some type of collateral. When a bank has collateral as security, it helps to reduce its risk.
When a customer defaults on a loan agreement, the bank can repossess or foreclose to take possession of the collateral. Many times the collateral is sold and the proceeds are applied toward the loan balance. Collateral reduces the loss that a bank will incur.
Banks will sometimes appraise and evaluate the collateral to make sure it can be used as collateral. They don’t want to make a loan for more than what the collateral is worth.
When a bank uses collateral, it will usually file a lien on a mortgage, against the property, with the county courthouse. This information is entered into the public records.
If a customer has a loan and the bank has collateral, the customer must pay off the bank loan from the proceeds of the sale.
When a customer files a petition for bankruptcy because he has too much debt, he must continue to pay a bank loan if he wants to keep the collateral. If he cannot pay, he must turn the collateral over to the bank.