A person could live up to 25 years or more in retirement and he must plan carefully in order to have sufficient resources to live on after he stops working. An employee can often convert a company retirement plan with a cash value to an individual retirement account, or IRA. This is beneficial because it gives the account owner more flexibility and control in managing his money.
Pension Conversion Guidelines
In order to convert a pension to an IRA, the account owner must be at a point where he can withdraw, or take distributions, from the pension plan. This usually happens at retirement age, but may also happen when an employee leaves active service with the sponsoring company. It is generally not possible for an employee still actively employed to take a cash disbursement from an employer-sponsored pension.
Cash Value Pensions
Cash value pension plans are a type of defined benefit plan. This may be a plan where the employer's pension plan promises to pay a certain amount each month to the employee until he, and possibly his spouse, die. Some of these plans allow the employee the option to take a cash amount in lieu of the monthly payments. This cash value of a defined benefit pension may be converted or rolled over into a traditional IRA to delay taxes and allow the balance to keep growing sheltered from additional income taxes.
401k Rollover to IRA
A 401k is also a defined contribution retirement plan, where the employee participates in the plan with his own contributions. The employer may match these contributions up to a certain percentage. If the employee is in a position to receive distributions from the 401k plan, such as when he leaves employment with the company sponsoring the plan, he can directly roll the 401k money into a traditional IRA, without incurring income taxes or penalties on the rolled-over amount.
401k to Roth
If a person has a Roth 401k account, it can be converted to a Roth IRA with ease. A traditional 401k can be converted to a Roth with some extra planning. The 401k owner can roll the money into a traditional IRA, without taxes and penalties. He can then convert the traditional IRA to a Roth by filing a conversion form. He will need to pay taxes at his regular income tax rate on the converted money. The Roth account will then continue to grow, and any withdrawals from that account at retirement age will be tax free.
- U.S. Department of Labor: FAQs About Cash Balance Pension Plans
- "Kiplinger"; Should You Convert to a Roth IRA?; Kimberly Lankford; March 2010
- CNN Money; Take Your (Pension) Lumps; Walter Updegrave; June 2007
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- Oregon State University. "Classified Employees (Staff) Pension Program." Accessed Feb. 5, 2020.
Craig Woodman began writing professionally in 2007. Woodman's articles have been published in "Professional Distributor" magazine and in various online publications. He has written extensively on automotive issues, business, personal finance and recreational vehicles. Woodman is pursuing a Bachelor of Science in finance through online education.