Funds in your pension plan typically consist of pretax dollars, meaning you'll need to pay taxes on all of the money once you start receiving payments in retirement. In some cases, though, you might have already paid taxes on a portion of the funds, if you made after-tax contributions to your plan while still working. To figure out the taxable and nontaxable portions of your pension payments, the IRS requires that you use one of two different methods, the General Rule or the Simplified Method.
In order to calculate the taxable portion of your pension, you can use one of two tools stipulated by the IRS, those being the General Rule or the Simplified Method. On a basic level, you can expect to pay tax on any money in your pension that was not already an after-tax contribution. If you have a non-qualified pension plan, you can use the General Rule to calculate your tax obligations.
Simplified Method Worksheet and Calculations
Pension plans are retirement benefit plans provided through an employer, typically paying regular payments during an individual's retirement to help replace a paycheck. The payments come from an investment fund that the individual, or his employer, contributed to during his working years. Pension payments factor in an employee's prior compensation and years of service to his employer.
The payment amounts you receive from your pension are fully taxable if you made no investment in the contract, and you'll receive an IRS Form 1099-R each year showing the total distribution you've received. Many pension programs are fully funded by employers. If you did not make any contributions to your pension with after-tax dollars, or if you received your contributions on a tax-free basis in prior years, all of your pension income will be taxable.
Conversely, you won't pay taxes on a portion of your pension payments if you made contributions to your account with after-tax dollars. In other words, you don't have to pay taxes twice on the part of your contributions or payments that consist of a return of these after-tax payments made during your working years.
For non-qualified pension plans, you must use the General Rule method instead of the IRS simplified method to figure out the taxable and tax-free portions of your pension payments. IRS Publication 939, General Rule for Pensions and Annuities, provides the calculation and other required information to help you figure your taxable portion. The formula is fairly straightforward if you expect to get payments for a set number of years. However, if you expect payments for the rest of your life, you'll need to also use a factor from the actuarial tables provided in Publication 939.
Exceptions for Pre-1997 Pensions
Individuals with pensions started after Nov. 18, 1996, must generally use the retirement plan income Simplified Method to calculate the taxable and nontaxable portions of their pension payments. However, if you're 75 or older, and your annuity or pension payments are guaranteed for more than five years, you'll still need to use the General Rule method.
You can complete the Simplified Method work sheet, located in the IRS Form 1040 Instruction book, for lines 16a and 16b, or Form 1040A Instructions for lines 12a and 12b. You can also use the work sheet in the back of IRS Publication 575, Pension and Annuity Income. You'll need to know your total payments received for the year, any investment you've made in the pension, and any amounts you've recovered tax-free in prior years. The IRS work book provides a step-by-step formula, including a table of numerical divisors to account for the age when you started taking payments, and the date your pension plan started payments.
2018 Tax Benefits to Retirees
Although you will still pay taxes on your pension, you'll get a bit of a break, thanks to the 2018 tax law changes. Those over the age of 65 will not only benefit from the $12,000 standard deduction but an additional $1,600. The tax brackets have also been lowered, which means you may pay less on any income you get in 2018.
Filing Your 2017 Taxes
If you're filing your 2017 taxes, you'll see a $6,350 standard deduction and a $1,550 deduction if you're over the age of 65.
- IRS: Topic Number 410 - Pensions and Annuities
- IRS: Publication 575 Pension and Annuity Income
- IRS: Publication 939 General Rule for Pensions and Annuities
- IRS. "Topic No. 410 Pensions and Annuities," Accessed Nov. 1, 2020.
- IRS. "Topic No. 411 Pensions – The General Rule and the Simplified Method," Accessed Nov. 1, 2020.
- IRS. "Publication 939 General Rule for Pensions and Annuities." Page 2. Accessed Nov. 1, 2020.
- A portion of your payments will be free from tax if you made any after-tax pension contributions. You were already taxed on these contributions when you earned the income.
- You can contact your plan administrator if you need assistance with information on your 1099-R.
- Failure to report income to the IRS can result in fines and criminal charges.
Cynthia Gaffney has spent over 20 years in finance with experience in valuation, corporate financial planning, mergers & acquisitions consulting and small business ownership. She has worked as a financial writer for online finance publications since 2011, including eHow Money, The Motley Fool, and Sapling.com. She has also edited for several online finance publications, including The Balance, Opposing Views:Money, Synonym:Money, and Zacks.com. A Southern California native, Cynthia received her Bachelor of Science degree in finance and business economics from USC.